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Description of Dutch Consumer Loans

Dutch Consumer Loans can generally be divided into:

  • Fixed rate, amortizing loans
  • Revolving Credits

Outstanding consumer debt in the Netherlands, per loan type (EUR million)*


Fixed Rate Loans

New Production

Revolving Credits

New Production

Consumer Loans

Total Outstanding


*Source: Annual reports VFN (The VFN (Vereniging van Financieringsondernemingen in Nederland) is the association of finance companies in the Netherlands) 2014 - 2021


Code of Conduct for Consumer Credit
An important feature of the Dutch Consumer Credit market is the Code of Conduct, which was established to protect consumers from loans they cannot afford and thereby decreasing the probability of defaulting on their loans. Click here for more information on origination and the Code of Conduct.


The Civil Code, the Act on the Consumer Credit (“Wck”), the Act on the Financial Supervision ("Wft") and the CKI
Consumer lending in the Netherlands used to be regulated by the Civil Code, the Wck and the Wft.  From January 1, 2017, the provisions of the Wck have been incorporated in the Civil Code (Title 2a of Book 7). Providers of consumer credit must have a license under the Wft, granted by the AFM. Under the Wft consumer lenders are obliged to participate in a Central Credit Information System (Centraal Krediet Informatiesysteem "CKI"). They must report all positive (e.g. new credits) and negative (e.g. arrears, defaults) events on consumer credits and are also obliged to verify the CKI before granting a new loan. The CKI is operated by the Stichting Bureau Krediet Registratie ("BKR")


Under Dutch legislation, when a borrower cannot meet his debt obligations, he can apply for a debt restructuring (Wet Schuldsanering Natuurlijke Personen, WSNP). A trustee will be appointed who is in charge of all of the borrower's finances. If during a three-year period a number of very strict criteria are met by the individual any remaining debts are cancelled after this period. More information can be found on the WSNP website of the Legal Aid Board (in Dutch).